Advance Blogs

Uninformed Artificial Intelligence Search Techniques

Written by admin

In artificial intelligence (AI), uninformed search strategies, commonly referred to as blind search algorithms, are essential methods for exploring problem spaces without the use of heuristics or domain-specific knowledge. These algorithms are applicable to a wide range of problems since they systematically search the search space for a solution based only on the problem’s initial state and objective condition. The main categories of ignorant search algorithms, their methods, and practical uses are covered in detail in this page.

Algorithm Types for Uninformed Searches
Algorithms that lack knowledge about the goal’s position in relation to the present state function blindly. The main ignorant search tactics consist of:
First-Breadth Search (BFS):

By beginning at the root node and expanding all of its nearby nodes before proceeding to the next depth level, Breadth-First Search (BFS) investigates the search space level by level. Queue data structures are used in BFS implementation to guarantee that nodes are examined in the order that they were found.


  •  Completeness: BFS is comprehensive, which means it will identify a solution if one is available.
  •  Optimality: Because BFS finds the shortest path to the objective, it is the best option for unweighted graphs.
  • Time complexity:  The temporal complexity is O(V+E), where V is the number of  vertices and E is the number of edges.
  • Space complexity: O(V) space complexity since all vertices must be stored in the queue.

DFS, or Depth-First Search:

Depth-First Search (DFS) is a deep search method that conducts a thorough exploration along each branch before turning around. DFS remembers which vertices to visit next by using a stack, either explicitly or by recursion.


  •  Completeness: Because DFS has the potential to become stuck in an infinite loop, it is incomplete for infinite graphs or graphs with loops.
  • Optimality: Since DFS doesn’t always discover the shortest path, it isn’t optimal.
  •  Time complexity: O(V+E) is the time complexity.
  •  Space Complexity: O(h), in the worst scenario, where h is the search tree’s maximum depth.

Search with Uniform Costs (UCS) :

Using a priority queue, Uniform-Cost Search (UCS) investigates nodes according to their   total cost from the start node. It guarantees that the path with the lowest cost is extended first.


  • Completeness: If the cost of every step is non-negative, UCS is considered complete.
  • Optimality: If every step cost is non-negative, UCS is optimal.
  • Complexity of Time: O((V+E)logV).
  • Space Complexity: Depending on the quantity of nodes with comparable prices, it may be   quite high.

Depth-Limited Search (DLS):

One variant of DFS with a predefined depth limit is called Depth-Limited Search (DLS). As a result, the algorithm is stopped from pursuing paths that are deeper than necessary.

Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search (IDDFS):

Through a succession of depth-limited searches with increasing depth limits, Iterative Deepening Depth-First Search (IDDFS) combines the space efficiency of DFS with the completeness of BFS.:

Bidirectional Search:

Two searches are conducted simultaneously by Bidirectional Search: one backward from the destination state and one ahead from the initial state. When the two searches intersect, the search is over.

Utilizing Informed Search Techniques

In many different domains, uninformed search techniques are commonly employed:

  • Solving Puzzles

By simulating states and transitions, algorithms like BFS and IDDFS are used to solve puzzles like the 15-puzzle, Rubik’s Cube, and Sokoban.

  • Route Scheduling
    By enlarging nodes that correspond to crossroads and streets, BFS or UCS can effectively determine the shortest pathways in transportation networks.
  • Playing Games
    Uninformed approaches search through potential movements in game state spaces and identify the best plays. DFS or IDDFS is often used in minimax tree search for board games like chess and checkers.
  • Navigation in Robotics
    When heuristic knowledge is unavailable, robots use basic uninformed techniques like BFS and grid maps to navigate across obstacle-filled areas.

Guidelines for Adopting Uninformed Search Techniques

Align the method with Problem Constraints: Select the method taking into account memory constraints, optimality criteria, and other factors.

Use Iterative Deepening for Memory Efficiency: IDDFS combines the completeness of breadth-first search with the space efficiency of depth-first search.
Utilize Bidirectional Search Techniques for Symmetric Issues: This meets in the center and can drastically cut down on search time.
Carefully formulate objective functions: Make sure the cost functions and transition model are well described.
Use Duplicate Detection to your advantage: prune the state space by avoiding going back to the nodes.
Adopt Knowledgeable Approaches When Required: Use of heuristics to direct the search could be used if performance is too slow.
Analyze Trade-offs: For each unique problem, determine the trade-offs between optimality, speed, and completeness.

Despite their drawbacks, uninformed search techniques offer a strong basis for AI problem solving. They provide fundamental methods for methodically investigating state spaces, which can be used to solve a variety of challenging issues.

About the author


Leave a Comment